Addiction, as illusory-compensatory behavior
Keywords:addictive behavior, psychological protection mechanisms, motivational-value sphere, meaning of life
The role of psychological factors in the development and dynamics of drug addiction is widely recognized: the occurrence of addiction is seen as a reaction to an intolerable internal state, the main feature of which is an intensive negative affect. Therefore, addiction is an attempt to solve psychological or life problems, or in other words it is a self-destructive way of emotional self-regulation for overcoming negative affect. The aim of the research was the empirical study of the life orientation of drug addicts, the system of psychological protection mechanisms and the personal profile. The Krambo-Maholick’s test was used to study life orientation, the Kellerman-Plutchik test was used to study psychological defense mechanisms, and the C-form of the Kettel 16-factor test was used to compile a personal profile. A total of 135 people were interviewed, 35 drug addicts among them. The research was conducted in two stages: in the first stage, the adaptation of the research test on the protection mechanisms was made, and in the second stage - the main empirical research was conducted. It is established that the addict is characterized by the deformation of the motivational-emotional sphere, which means the restriction of interests, life goals, vital space and the meaning of life, dissatisfaction with oneself and one's life. Psychological protection mechanisms that develop in ontogenesis as a means of adaptation and internal conflict resolution, in the case of addiction, lead to opposing condition - disadaptation. The deformation of the psychological protection structure provides powerful ways of blocking reality: the ability to critically evaluate one's own illness is severely impaired. The system of psychological protection does not allow the drug addict to properly understand the severity of the drug usage results, which, in turn, contributes to the deepening of personality deformities and pathological forms of behavior.A personal profile of a drug addict has been created. Compared to a healthy man, drug addict is emotionally more unstable, more unpredictable, careless, rough, less practical, characterized by a more primitive worldview, his intellectual interests are more restricted, has lower self-control, weak volition regulation, low self-discipline, impulsivity, affectivity. Predictors for evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy within the framework of the Addiction Rehabilitation Program have been established.
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